Underwriting is the major operation of a truck insurance company because the underwriter determines the risk the truck insurer can take on and determining the necessary rate for such risks.
The underwriter is responsible for protecting the truck insurance company against adverse selection where high risk candidates pay more for coverage in proportion to the amount for coverage of low risk candidates. To prevent adverse selection, the underwriter must consider psychological, physical, and moral hazards when considering truck insurance applicants.
Other considerations to insure big rigs are physical hazards-dangers which surround the property or individual that may jeopardize the operations of the insured. The truck insurance premium is determined by the law of averages as calculated by actuaries. Big Rig Truck Insurance Programs and insurance companies that issue them have become major suppliers of capital, and they rank among the nation's largest institutional investors because truck insurers invest premium payments into a wide range of revenue producing projects.
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The Federal Motor Carrier Act of 1980 requires interstate motor carriers to provide evidence of financial responsibility. One way to achieve this is to obtain a MCS-90 endorsement from an insurance company. An MCS-90 endorsement makes the insurance company a guarantor of the motor carrier’s ability to pay liabilities it may incur, including bodily damage associated with its drivers and vehicles, or property damage associated with pollution losses (for example, from hazardous materials spills). The primary purpose of requiring motor carriers to demonstrate financial responsibility is to ensure that liabilities incurred in hazardous material spills, for example, will be paid, even in the event of the bankruptcy of the responsible motor carrier.
MCS-90 indemnification is usually attached as a rider to other insurance coverage that motor carriers are required to have, but is distinct and separate from such coverage. Under MCS-90, the insurance company evaluates the credit risk of the firms it covers. It only becomes responsible for “hazard” risk when these firms become bankrupt, or otherwise unable to pay. In addition to MCS-90 indemnification, motor carriers also purchase insurance coverage that obligates the insurance company to reimburse them for liabilities and costs associated with accidents or hazardous spills.